The Deep Ecology and the intrinsic value of nature
"A philosopher has called this the noumenon imponderable essence of material things. It is in opposition to the phenomenon , which is ponderable and predictable , right down to the motion of more distant stars " ( Aldo Leopold , 1949-1997 ) . The knowledge of a phenomenon is purely empirical , that is the result of the mediation of the sensitive subject. This acquisition , however , can not be elevated to a universal concept , being completely arbitrary strictly generalize individual experience . A personal experience , then , there are limits even to itself , because it is the result of a "moment" empirical continuously variable.
The " intrinsic value in itself or " a phenomenon ( noumenon ) , value -free experience and subjective mediations , takes instead of a lasting nature , universal and real. The " intrinsic value " is something higher , something not definable perhaps unknowable , transcending the subject to become essence of the object : " the Tao described is not the eternal Tao " ( Lao Tse ) . Here is a deeper look into the mind and universal concept "noble" .
Only at a later stage we will be able to "interpret" the noumenon turning it into a "phenomenon" that is the object of the senses. This raises the contrast between the "things in themselves " and "things than we do ." This duality is a fundamental concept , as we shall see, for the protection and conservation of nature. The dualistic view of the natural world is imposed largely in the West due to a negative influence religious (eg Christianity placed man ruler on the one hand and the nature subjugated the other) , and it was proper, among other things, the Greek philosophy which placed the man , thinker and sensitive nature outside of a subordinate and objectified . Only in Eastern thought will be able to discern , at least in part, a vital non-anthropocentric philosophy of dualism and therefore missing . In the West exalts the ego to the detriment of all, in the East exalts himself against all ego . " Control of nature is a phrase full of conceit, was born in a period of biology and philosophy that we can define the ' Neanderthal Age , when it was still believed that nature exists for the sole benefit of man "( Carson, 1963). The philosophy of life of the majority of the American Indian is another vivid example of global and absolute absence of dualism. "It ' a culture of respect for nature, for all the forms in which it occurs ; a vision of the world as a whole, continuous exchange and mutual dependence ; a conception of life as a ceaseless participation in the creation " (Kaiser , 1992). Quoting Kaiser noted that " dualism separates man from nature, thus separating it from himself , as he too is nature ...... A dualistic conception of man's relationship with its neighbor implies that the ' individual feels separated from the first , as opposed to him ...... the dualistic thinking divider sees man as opposed to nature, to which man would be called on to dominate nature , submitting to their will . The nature has no relevance to ethics and man therefore has no moral responsibility towards him .... In this respect , the traditional Indian thought revolves around the concepts of a great cosmic family and solidarity with all .... " .
However, it should highlight the difference that exists with the concept of duality. He writes in this regard Kaiser (1992): "In our reflection is necessary to distinguish the ' duality ' dualism . The confusion between these two concepts , we can detect very often prevents , in fact, a clear differentiation between dualism and the western way of thinking, in terms of balance, typical of Asian cultures and American Indian .
The idea of balance , balance, compensation , which characterizes the Indian interpretation of the world, is based entirely on the concept of ' duality ' . We have mentioned the duality of man and woman , but it is the whole of reality to be ordered on the basis of that concept : the day-night ; summer and winter ; earth-sky ; attraction repulsion ; love-hate relationship ; joy - sadness .......
The idea of balance is essential to consider the duality as reality formed by opposing value types, dominated by discord , but the reality of equal value , existing in a complementary relationship , and therefore complement each other . The real engine of the world is therefore the desire of the opposition to come together and reconcile. It ' also important to not intensify or prolong indefinitely the divisions and discord within duality , because otherwise they are turned into dualities . The dualism , in fact, is a sign of duality and not intended antagonistically in a complementary way ........
Modern physics , therefore , interprets certain contradictions as a reality that no longer mutually exclusive , but as different aspects of a single reality . "
It should be noted , therefore, that the interpenetration of opposites always generates unity despite the diversity within the dialectics of nature as long as the vision of the world is unificatoria and centripetal .
The " intrinsic value or intrinsic " nature ( natural noumenon ) , is the highest expression of thought. Then assert that the natural substance ( in the general sense of the term) should be preserved and respected for its intrinsic value , without any mediation or our intuition , is the highest elevation conceptual conservation that can be formulated . Each action must always be an end in itself without giving it a positive or negative value in relation to the possible consequences it generates .
On the contrary, in the common knowledge of mental speculation , we are referring "always" concepts "than us." In fact, you stimulate interventions only if they bring " earnings " material or spiritual or otherwise utilitarian . Translating , we will help you protect ancient woodland so in the present and future generations can enjoy the man physically and spiritually.
Here , however, a superior concept : " Nature must be preserved and respected for its intrinsic value , not for our interest in material or spiritual ."
A natural phenomenon has its maximum value in itself, and occurs independently of the knowledge and the mediation sensitive . It ' important to understand that a "place" has something in him that we can not and should not try to interpret. Only in this way we will be able to give the right value to the natural world that belongs to him. At one time the human mind had in himself, in the unconscious , this concept, as it possesses a wild wolf or a bear of the forests , but the trauma of separation from nature there is private . Every fund has its own "vision " of life and unknowingly puts himself (especially as an individual ) to the " center " of reality. But this is only apparent centrality , which is useful to the needs of the survival of the moment. The man turns instead that centrality in a total subordination of all external reality from him, by giving precedence to only the absolute and universal rights of their own species . All this with the utmost awareness.
When you " studied " a natural phenomenon, it is impossible to know without being influenced by the speculations of those who operate such an investigation . The claim of Western science to figure out aseptically the "objects" of nature without considering the contribution of the subject, is a pure Cartesian illusion . J. Wheeler , a physicist at Princeton University reminds us that " there is no law except the law that there is no law ."
If, as we have seen, in the past the man has been a member for all purposes of the wilderness of the world, it has gradually become the only subject , came out from the stage of nature, has falsified the truth , and influenced towards his devious interests of almost all the elements of nature.
Faced with this profound dialectical so articulate and full of variables , there is the need , within the same human thought, to reverse the state of affairs , mental and material , to recondition the man to a " balanced and fair " size . This "right" size , it was his own , as mentioned, in the savage peoples or those who lived in each case "essence" with nature.
If the man remained in connection with the wild world , as a vague and unpredictable chaos in the orderly nature , did not raise any issue of destruction and invasion and, thus, consequently , protection , respect or nature conservation . But his rebellion against the natural truth led him to settle in if the sense of harmony and purity of the original , turning it into a voracious be blinded by their own assertion and self-centeredness . Here, then, that the essential becomes superfluous and the vacuum becomes essential. It happens the total detachment from nature , there is the oppression and annihilation towards the things of the external world from itself . The man is considered then the center of everything and the only meter of things. "Nature may have intended the fertile land to other purposes that the nourishment of human beings ." (J. Muir) .
The thought conservation , seen as a whole, has often ignored the concept of the " noumenon " in proposing a new mindset towards nature, instead reiterating once again the centrality of man as the ultimate protection ( anthropocentric ethical ) . Only ecocentric ethics have introduced this new paradigm is in the form of intrinsic value that is not utilitarian transpersonal ( deep ecology ) . Very important is what one sees in the " concept of wilderness ," in which much importance is given to the preservation of an area to its value in itself and not utilitarian , successfully spreading these principles , making basic steps towards a new and real philosophy of conservation .
The ecology superficial, exclusively anthropocentric , is clearly inclined towards an evaluation of the utilitarian nature ( nature remains tool , a resource at the service of man - Naess , 1994). Deep ecology , on the other hand , tends to attribute an intrinsic value to the things of nature ( living or dead ) universalizing the sense of identification .
Going beyond the intrinsic value of nature, means getting lost in speculation conservationist who turn away from the assumption of this value and distort into a profit subjective and self-centered . The next step , but already in the noumenon , is to reconnect with one natural crossing and dispersing the weltanschauung dualistic view of life. It should be dimensioned to the above parties and the subjective mind . This does not mean that the personal self must be overcome , but on the contrary should make a real revolution subjective and merged in the infinite sea of the impersonal .
"It would be a grave injustice to liquidate utopian thinking as pure fantasy , imaginary and unattainable ; relegate it to the utopian literature defined to underestimate its wide distribution on many levels in all cultures . In any way be expressed, the utopian thinking is essentially a critique of the flaws and limitations of the society and an expression of something better " (P. Sears, 1965 Devall and Sessions 1989).
It is not possible regardless of the wilderness and , I might add , even more of its value in itself. Who acknowledges the intrinsic value of things, will have a total vision of life that will be new and profound ( in the work will be honest , sincere in friendship will be , will be loyal in love , the breath will be deep, with the next one will be kind, and so away ) .
Aldo Leopold rightly asserted that environmental problems are fundamentally philosophical matrix , in which the solution must be sought for a new relationship with nature ( Hargrove , 1990).
"We tried to put ourselves in relation to the world around us only through the left side of our minds, and we are clearly failing. If you intend to re-establish a viable , we will need to recognize the wisdom of nature, aware that the relationship with the land and the natural world required the whole being " (Dolores LaChapelle in Devall & Sessions, 1989).
John Muir said : "I was just out for a walk but in the end I decided to stay out till sundown , because I realized that going out was, in fact , a go inside."
"I declare that I understand
what could be better
what about the best.
And always leave the best unsaid" ( W. Whitman, A Song on the Rolling Earth).
"The wilderness is a spiritual need that each of us carries inside , and from the simple love of beauty to the overwhelming need to feel some loneliness . And ' the discomfort we feel in nature before the work of man, even when this is minimal or has the purpose of preservation or study. The wild water is free to flow, erode , swell and overflow ; is the freedom of flying and running animals; are intact horizons of mountains or flat marshes ; is the immensity of the sky in a landscape of grass ; is the silence of nature and the roar of the waters in the mountain valleys ; the howl of the storm in the forest ; the hiss of the storm and the roar of the avalanche scary ; the slow flight of canceling the space between the mountains ; is the play of the waves on the reef. The wilderness is turning around his eyes and did not see a sign of a man; is to listen and do not hear the noise of man " (Franco Zunino ).
"The protection of a natural area can certainly have many roles, many purposes , but I think only one has to be the purpose for which it is to be implemented to preserve the land for its own sake . And keep it means , or should mean , to you that is not altered deliberately , it means deciding to subtract it from the logic of development (which is the logic of profit ) that is purely human .
Deciding to keep a place you decide to keep that place for an ancestral behavior , animal, who is our origin , that is the only way to define ourselves in balance with the environment : no deer , no wolves , no bear has ever could or purported to "develop" or " enhance " or " to produce" their own habitat . Simply use it for thousands of years for what it offers them spontaneously and leaving it unchanged for generations . It 's just the man the only species of animal to be out of this " circle of life " (Franco Zunino ).